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Introduction to Ethical Hacking | Linux Basics | Networking

Hacking is the process of finding vulnerabilities in a system and using these found vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access into the system to perform malicious activities ranging from deleting system files to stealing sensitive information. Hacking is illegal and can lead to extreme consequences if you are caught in the act. People have been sentenced to years of imprisonment because of hacking.


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Animesh Pathsk

3 years ago | 3 min read

What is Ethical Hacking?

Hacking is the process of finding vulnerabilities in a system and using these found vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access into the system to perform malicious activities ranging from deleting system files to stealing sensitive information. Hacking is illegal and can lead to extreme consequences if you are caught in the act. People have been sentenced to years of imprisonment because of hacking.

These are various types of hackers:

1. White Hat Hackers (Cyber-Security Hacker)           
2. Black Hat Hackers (Cracker)
3. Gray Hat Hackers (Both)

Let’s summarize them one-by-one.

  1. White Hat Hackers: Here, we look for bugs and ethically report it to the organization. We are authorized as a user to test for bugs in a website or network and report it to them. White hat hackers generally get all the needed information about the application or network to test for, from the organization itself. They use their skills to test it before the website goes live or attacked by malicious hackers.
  2. Black Hat Hackers: Here, the organization doesn’t allow the user to test it. They unethically enter inside the website and steal data from the admin panel or manipulate the data. They only focus on themselves and the advantages they will get from the personal data for personal financial gain. They can cause major damage to the company by altering the functions which lead to the loss of the company at a much higher extent. This can even lead you to extreme consequences.
  3. Grey Hat Hackers: They sometimes access to the data and violates the law. But never have the same intention as Black hat hackers, they often operate for the common good. The main difference is that they exploit vulnerability publicly whereas white hat hackers do it privately for the company.

Resources

  1. Read about the Kali releases and it's features. Visually, it has become quite interesting recently!
  2. Introduction to Ethical Hacking
  3. Basic Kali Linux Commands
  4. Linux essentials for Hackers - Hackersploit || Nullbyte - RECOMMENDED

Day 1a [Handy commands and actions]

Your handy terminal shortcuts!

  • Ctrl+C Terminates a job/process
  • Ctrl+Shift+C Copy
  • Ctrl+Shift+V Paste

Keep system and applications up-to-date

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade OR sudo apt update && sudo apt full-upgrade -> Update the kali repositories

sudo apt-get install <application_name> -> Install/update git community repositories

Access privileges

Most Popular command - chmod 777 <file>

When we want to set permissions, we just add up the number. For example, to set the permissions to read and write, we will use ‘6’ (4 + 2) for the permission.

Here are the different permutations:

  • 0 – no permission
  • 1 – EXECUTE
  • 2 – WRITE
  • 3 – write and execute
  • 4 – READ
  • 5 – read and execute
  • 6 – read and write
  • 7 – read, write, and execute

Depending on the permissions you want to grant to the file, you just set the number accordingly. What about the 3 digits ‘777’? Well, the First digit is assigned to the Owner, the Second digit is assigned to the Group and the Third digit is assigned to the Others. So for a file with ‘777’ permission, everyone can read, write and execute the file.

Day 1b [Types of Hackers | Networking]

  1. Hacker_Roadmap (:star: Star this repository for future reference)
  2. Types of Hackers

NETWORKING

COPY

sudo ifconfig 
OR ip -a // network adapter information (Your machine's IP is visible at eth0)
iwconfig // wlan adapters information
ping <ip/url> // ping to check connection and stability
arp -a // IP address with MAC address
route //routing table tells you where the traffic exits
netstat -ano // all open connections and which one is talking from what port number
  • Running a local sever on Kali machine -> python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8080
    Now, go in any browser and enter :8080 to access system files!

TCP : https smtp ftp

COPY

1. Connection oriented <br/>
2. Give Response <br/>

UDP : dns ntp
1.No response

_Three Way Handshake__
CLIENT ---------->Server
syn
CLIENT<-----------Server
ack+syn
CLIENT----------->Server
ack
Connection complete!
__

  • Flags
    FIN - transmission finished
    PSH - send buffer
    URG - important packet
    RST - Reset connection

  • Read about a Christmas Tree packet.
  • Ports
    1.Open - that actively respond to incoming connection
    2.Closed - that respond but does not have any services running on that port (Firewall not present)
    3.Filtered - (Firewall present) protected and prevents nmap from determining open/closed
    4.Unfiltered - nmap can access but cannot determine open/closed
    5.Open-filtered - nmap belives to be open but can not say
    6.Close-filtered - nmap belives to be closed but can not say

Staying Anonymous in Kali Linux

How to stay anonmous

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