VueJS - 6 different ways to implement v-model
Have you ever needed to implement two-way data binding for your custom VueJS components? In this article, I show you how to implement your own v-model mechanisms for VueJS components in 6 different ways.
VueJS is a web framework used to build front-end applications and it is widely adopted by web developers around the world.
It provides the v-model directive that makes two-way binding between form inputs "a breeze".
Depending on what you are building, you might need to build custom components that deal with two-way data binding. Here are some ways of implementing your own custom v-model:
- Local Variable Watcher
- Custom Method
- “Powerful” Computed Property
- Custom Prop and Event (VueJS 2)
- The .sync Modifier (VueJS 2)
- Named v-model (VueJS 3+)
Obs.: The goal here is not to benchmark neither discuss which of the implementations is the best but to introduce the different approaches that can be used to implement v-model in your custom components
The component named BaseInput.vue used in the examples is very simple, and you might even question if implementing a custom `v-model` is really necessary for it, but, as mentioned, the intention is just to demonstrate the possibilities.
1. Local variable watcher
This is probably the most used way of implementing v-model in your custom components. You create a prop named value using the type you need, then create a local observable variable in data() and initialize it with the value of the prop you've created previously and watch its changes in order to emit an input event to the parent component to update the value prop from the outside**.
2. Custom method
You might have already read that, to prevent performance issues, you should avoid using watchers in your application.
In this second example, we take advantage of the @input event triggered by the native input element* and, using a custom method inside our component, we pass the value of the input to the parent component emitting an input event so that the value prop is updated from the outside**.
It is also important to mention that in this case we do not use the v-model in the native input, but the value attribute.
* VueJS already attaches event listeners to form inputs for us automatically and when these inputs are destroyed, all listeners are destroyed as well
⚠ VueJS 3: if you are using the latest version of VueJS, change the name of the prop from `value` to `modelValue` and the name of the event from input to update:modelValue as per VueJS 3 docs.
3. "Powerful" computed property
Another way of implementing v-model in your custom component is using computed properties getters and setters.
You can define a local computed property, implement a getter that returns the value property, and a setter that emits an `input` event for the parent component to update the value prop from the outside**.
⚠ VueJS 3: if you are using the latest version of VueJS, change the name of the prop from value to modelValue and the name of the event from input to update:modelValue as per VueJS 3 docs.
** You must avoid changing a prop value directly. See the Docs.
4. Custom prop and event (VueJS 2)
You might have noticed that, in the previous examples, the name of the prop is always value and the name of the event is always input. These are defaults to implement a v-model in your custom component. But you can change it if you want. You can name the prop and the event according to your own needs.
For that to be possible you may set the model attribute and tell the component which names you expect to represent the prop and the event that will update it.
⚠ VueJS 3: if you are using the latest version of VueJS, this approach will not work since it is now deprecated.
5. The ".sync" modifier (VueJS 2)
This is not a v-model implementation exactly but it will work as it is. With the .sync modifier (VueJS 2.3+), the child component doesn’t need a value prop. Instead, it uses the same prop name you synced in the parent.
Also instead of emitting an input event to update the prop, you emit the conveniently named event update:text. (Source: Vue’s new and improved prop.sync).
**⚠ VueJS 3: if you are using the latest version of VueJS, this approach will not work since it is now deprecated.
6. Named v-model (VueJS 3)
With VueJS 3, released on 18 September 2020, it is now possible to define which prop will represent the v-model inside the component in an extremely easy way.
To do that, you just need to use a modifier in the v-model itself when using your custom component.
In the example below, we are defining that the text prop, inside the BaseInput component will receive the value from the v-model.
Let me know if you know of any other implementation that might be worth mentioning or event provide me suggestions about subjects that can become short articles like this one.
You can find an example for all of the mentioned approaches in this repo.
Thanks to Keith Machado for his help!
I hope it is useful and please, share it!